questions about Bladder cancer?
what is the survival rate for bladdr cancer for a man in his 50s? How quickly does bladder cancer spread? -blood has been in his urine since may is it likely to have spread?
It is not possible to give you a very meaningful answer with the information provided. Given that, most bladder cancers are superficial and can be controlled or cured. It is important that he have a transurethral biopsy preformed in a timely manner. That will confirm the diagnosis, provide information regarding tumor grade (how aggressive it is), stage (has it invaded into the bladder muscle - if so the risk of spreading is higher) and the presence or absence of carcinoma insitu. Treatment options vary depending on stage and grade. Please see these links and below for more information: http://www.urologyhealth.org/content/moreinfo/bladderbasics.pdf http://www.urologyhealth.org/content/moreinfo/bladdercancer.pdf The following comes from urologyhealth.org (a site I frequently refer patients to): Bladder Cancer Bladder cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the United States. About 53,200 Americans are diagnosed with bladder cancer each year and 12,200 die annually of the disease. In recent decades there has been a steady increase in the incidence of bladder cancer. However, doctors are making progress in treatment and survival rates are improving. But what are its symptoms? How should it be treated? The following information should help you talk to a urologist about this condition. Increase Text Size What happens under normal conditions? The bladder is a hollow balloon-shaped mostly muscular organ that stores urine until ready for release. The urine is produced in the kidneys. It flows through tubes called the ureters into the bladder and is discharged through the urethra during urination. The bladder muscle aids urination by contracting (tightening) to help force out the urine. A thin surface layer called the urothelium lines the inside of the bladder. Next is a layer of loose connective tissue called the lamina propria. Covering the lamina propria is the bladder muscle, covered on the outside by fat. What causes bladder cancer? The ways in which bladder cancers develop and progress are only partly understood. However, a number of substances that cause the cancers to develop have been identified. Chief among them are cancer-causing agents in cigarette smoke and various industrial chemicals. Cigarette smoking alone has been estimated to cause 50 percent of all bladder cancer cases in the United States. Long-term workplace exposure to chemical compounds such as paints and solvents has been estimated to cause another 20 to 25 percent of bladder cancer cases. More than 90 percent of all bladder cancers originate in the urothelium. The majority of diagnosed bladder tumors are confined to the urothelium or the lamina propria and have not invaded the bladder muscle. What are the symptoms of bladder cancer? Painless blood in the urine (hematuria) is the most common symptom. It eventually occurs in nearly all cases of bladder cancer. In the majority of cases, the blood is visible during urination. In some cases, it is invisible except under a microscope, and is usually discovered when analyzing a urine sample as part of a routine examination. Hematuria does not by itself confirm the presence of bladder cancer. Blood in the urine has many possible causes. For example, it may result from a urinary tract infection or kidney stones rather than from cancer. It is important to note that hematuria, particularly microscopic, might be entirely normal for some individuals. A diagnostic investigation is necessary to determine whether bladder cancer is present. Other symptoms of bladder cancer may include frequent urination and pain upon urination (dysuria). How is bladder cancer diagnosed? The diagnostic investigation begins with a thorough medical history and a physical examination. The doctor will ask the patient about past exposure to known causes of bladder cancer, such as cigarette smoke or chemicals. Also, because hematuria can come from anywhere in the urinary tract, the doctor may order radiological imaging of the kidneys, ureter and bladder to check for problems in these organs. Diagnostic tools to check for bladder cancer include various types of urinalysis. In one type, the urine is examined under a microscope to look for cancer cells that may have been shed into the urine from the bladder lining. Urine can also be tested for substances known to be closely associated with cancer cells. The doctor's most important diagnostic tool is cystoscopy, which is a procedure that allows direct viewing of the inside of the bladder. This is most commonly performed as an office procedure under local anesthesia or light sedation. First, a topical anesthetic gel is applied, so the patient will feel little or no discomfort. The doctor then inserts a viewing instrument called a cystoscope through the urethra and into the bladder. Looking through the cystoscope, the doctor is able to examine the bladder's inner surfaces for si
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