Assessor Resource

AVIY0021
Operate helicopter at low level

Assessment tool

Version 1.0
Issue Date: December 2018


This unit involves the skills and knowledge required to operate a helicopter at low level, in compliance with relevant regulatory requirements of the Civil Aviation Safety Authority and national operating standards.

It includes planning lowlevel operations, manoeuvring a helicopter at low level, and performing quick stop manoeuvres. It also includes executing reversal turns, executing a forced landing from below 200 feet (ft) above ground level (AGL), and operating at low level in hilly terrain.

This unit addresses aviation technical skill requirements (physical, mental and task-management abilities) related to aircraft operational duties of flight crew, and contributes to safe and effective performance in complex aviation operational environments.

Operations are conducted as part of recreational, commercial and military aircraft activities across a variety of operational contexts within the Australian aviation industry.

Work is performed independently or under limited supervision within a single-pilot or multi-crew environment.

Licensing, legislative, regulatory or certification requirements are applicable to this unit.

Use for Defence Aviation is to be in accordance with relevant Defence Orders, Instructions, Publications and Regulations.

You may want to include more information here about the target group and the purpose of the assessments (eg formative, summative, recognition)



Evidence Required

List the assessment methods to be used and the context and resources required for assessment. Copy and paste the relevant sections from the evidence guide below and then re-write these in plain English.

ELEMENTS

PERFORMANCE CRITERIA

Elements describe the essential outcomes.

Performance criteria describe the performance needed to demonstrate achievement of the element.

1

Plan lowlevel operations

1.1

Requirement to operate at low level is identified and justified in accordance with workplace procedures and regulatory requirements

1.2

Lowlevel operational hazards are identified, evaluated and risk managed, and appropriate decision is made concerning the safe conduct of these operations

1.3

Aircraft type and performance is assessed as appropriate for low-level operations

1.4

Consultation with all relevant stakeholders involved in a low-level operation is completed to confirm task/operating requirements

1.5

Pre-flight inspection is correctly performed, and aircraft serviceability type and performance are determined as appropriate for the task

1.6

Actual and forecast weather conditions are analysed for effects on low-level operations

1.7

Area of lowlevel operations is identified using chart and geographical features, including the boundary where low flying may commence and normal flight altitude is required

1.8

Action plans for the operation are formulated to ensure safe and effective operation of a helicopter at low level

1.9

Unplanned manoeuvres are avoided

1.10

Compliance is maintained with air traffic control (ATC) instructions, regulatory and reporting requirements

2

Manoeuvre helicopter at low level

2.1

Lowlevel flight manoeuvres are performed safely using pre-planned manoeuvres at planned altitudes

2.2

Effects of wind velocity, false horizons, rising ground and mountainous terrain are managed, and control of helicopter is correctly maintained

2.3

Visual attention is focused outside the cockpit

2.4

Lookout is maintained using a systematic scan technique at a rate determined by traffic density, visibility and/or terrain

2.5

Natural horizon is used as primary attitude reference

2.6

Nose of aircraft is cleared to ensure forward visibility when appropriate

2.7

Situational awareness is maintained at all times during lowlevel manoeuvres

2.8

Helicopter is safely manoeuvred adjacent to power lines and wires

2.9

All obstacles are identified, and are appropriately and safely avoided

2.10

Personnel, animals, vehicles and buildings are identified, and are appropriately and safely avoided

2.11

Height is maintained by visual reference to earth’s surface when below 500 ft AGL

2.12

Weather conditions are monitored and appropriate responses are made

2.13

Fuel status is monitored and appropriate responses are made

2.14

Local and published noise abatement requirements and curfews are observed

3

Perform quick stop manoeuvre

3.1

Deceleration of helicopter from forward flight is initiated into wind, maintaining height to terminate to the hover at nominated hover point

3.2

Aircraft is turned and decelerated or decelerated and turned, maintaining height by controlled action, to terminate to the hover at nominated hover point, into wind

3.3

Deceleration/acceleration manoeuvres are conducted within the time and distance limitations specified while maintaining a constant height above the surface

3.4

Wind velocity is estimated and is appropriately taken into account in manoeuvres

3.5

Helicopter inertia is anticipated and appropriate allowance is made in manoeuvres

3.6

Situation awareness is maintained at all times during a quick stop manoeuvre

3.7

Obstructions are identified, and are appropriately and safely avoided

4

Execute forced landing from 200 ft AGL

4.1

Emergency situations requiring a forced landing are identified

4.2

Appropriate immediate actions are performed

4.3

Landing area within autorotative distance is selected and appropriate action plan is formulated

4.4

Emergency procedures are performed

4.5

Emergency radio messages of intentions are transmitted

4.6

Helicopter is landed and shut down as required

5

Operate at low level in hilly terrain

5.1

Helicopter is safely manoeuvred at low level in hilly terrain

5.2

Safe operating heights relevant to lowlevel operation type are established and maintained

5.3

Terrain flight following techniques are applied during lowlevel operations

5.4

Appropriate geographical features and markers are identified and selected to aid situational awareness

5.5

Rising and falling ground/terrain is identified and approached using safe flying techniques, including identifying abort points and escape routes

5.6

Effects of wind and turbulence in hilly terrain, including lee effects are identified and managed

5.7

Spatial disorientation factors relevant to lowlevel operations are identified and applied to lowlevel manoeuvres

Evidence required to demonstrate competence in this unit must be relevant to and satisfy all of the requirements of the elements and performance criteria on at least one occasion and include:

adapting to differences in equipment and operating environment in accordance with standard operating procedures

applying awareness of wind effect in the vicinity of obstructions, mountainous terrain and illusions

applying correct navigation techniques and procedures at low level

applying knowledge of the effect of false horizons

applying precautions and required action to minimise, control or eliminate identified hazards

applying relevant helicopter aeronautical knowledge

applying relevant legislation and workplace procedures

communicating effectively with others

completing relevant documentation

complying with airspace requirements and procedures

conducting procedure turns from a fixed ground reference point

flying at various speed and configurations not below safe single-engine speed (+15 KIAS for multi-engine aircraft)

identifying and avoiding power lines and wires by a minimum of 15 feet (ft) when crossing overhead

identifying and correctly using relevant equipment

identifying and justifying a decision to operate a helicopter at low level

identifying escape routes and rising ground

identifying poles, cross trees, wires and insulators to assist power line and wire location

identifying the requirement to operate in the vicinity of power lines and wires and assessing associated risk

implementing contingency plans

implementing work health and safety (WHS)/occupational health and safety (OHS) procedures and relevant regulations

interpreting and following operational instructions and prioritising work

maintaining a constant altitude over featureless terrain or water

managing the aircraft energy state:

identifying high kinetic energy situations

identifying low kinetic energy situations

identifying high potential energy situations

identifying low potential energy situations

modifying activities depending on workplace contingencies, situations and environments

monitoring and anticipating operational problems and hazards and taking appropriate action

monitoring work activities in terms of planned schedule

navigating to a predetermined destination at altitude below 500 ft AGL

operating adjacent to power lines and wires

operating electronic communications equipment to required protocol

performing flight at various speed and configurations

performing lowlevel circuit and landing

performing quick stop manoeuvres:

into wind entry

downwind entry

performing straight flight

performing turns at various bank angles up to 60° angle of bank at normal cruise speed

reading, interpreting and following relevant regulations, instructions, procedures, information and signs

recognising and controlling the illusion of slipping and skidding during turns close to the ground

recognising and managing the impact of sun glare on increased risk of collision with obstacles

recognising the effect of rising and descending terrain on aircraft performance

reporting and/or rectifying identified problems promptly, in accordance with regulatory requirements and workplace procedures

selecting and using required personal protective equipment conforming to industry and WHS/OHS standards

setting local or area barometric pressure adjusted for sea level (QNH) at appropriate stages of flight

using instruments to monitor helicopter performance when operating a helicopter at low level

working collaboratively with others

working systematically with required attention to detail without injury to self or others, or damage to goods or equipment.

Evidence required to demonstrate competence in this unit must be relevant to and satisfy all of the requirements of the elements and performance criteria and include knowledge of:

air traffic requirements

application of the height/velocity diagram/graph

CASR Part 61 Manual of Standards Schedule 3 Aeronautical Knowledge relevant to low level helicopter operations

critical operational conditions, including retreating blade stall, vortex ring, overpitching, loss of anti-torque effectiveness, negative g effects

effect of aircraft inertia at low level

effect of wind velocity on low-level operations

effects of illusions

flight rules and legislation related to low-level ratings

functions and effects of all helicopter controls, including rotor RPM (RRPM) management (governors) and engine acceleration response

human factors during lowlevel operations:

dehydration

fatigue

stress and short/long term impacts

drugs impact

spatial disorientation and illusions

local air traffic control procedures and instructions

lowlevel operational techniques

maximum rate and minimum rate turn criteria

meteorological factors affecting helicopter flight performance during lowlevel flight

obstruction avoidance techniques

operational inspections

operations on, or in vicinity of, non-controlled and controlled aerodromes or airstrips:

aerial inspections

planning and aviation risk management processes

pre-flight and after-flight inspections

problems that may occur when operating a helicopter at low level and appropriate action that should be taken in each case

procedures for using performance charts

purpose and functions of helicopter systems

relevant sections of Civil Aviation Safety Regulations and Civil Aviation Orders

relevant WHS/OHS and environmental procedures and regulations

safety hazards and risks of lowlevel helicopter operations and precautions for controlling risks

terrain following techniques

use of escape routes and rising ground

weather effects on low-level operations.

As a minimum, assessors must satisfy applicable regulatory requirements, which include requirements in the Standards for Registered Training Organisations current at the time of assessment.

As a minimum, assessment must satisfy applicable regulatory requirements, which include requirements in the Standards for Registered Training Organisations current at the time of assessment.

Assessment processes and techniques must be appropriate to the language, literacy and numeracy requirements of the work being performed and the needs of the candidate.

Assessment must occur in workplace operational situations. Where this is not appropriate, assessment must occur in simulated workplace operational situations that reflect workplace conditions.

Resources for assessment must include access to:

a range of relevant exercises, case studies and/or simulations

acceptable means of simulation assessment

applicable documentation including workplace procedures, regulations, codes of practice and operation manuals

relevant materials, tools, equipment and personal protective equipment currently used in industry.


Submission Requirements

List each assessment task's title, type (eg project, observation/demonstration, essay, assingnment, checklist) and due date here

Assessment task 1: [title]      Due date:

(add new lines for each of the assessment tasks)


Assessment Tasks

Copy and paste from the following data to produce each assessment task. Write these in plain English and spell out how, when and where the task is to be carried out, under what conditions, and what resources are needed. Include guidelines about how well the candidate has to perform a task for it to be judged satisfactory.

ELEMENTS

PERFORMANCE CRITERIA

Elements describe the essential outcomes.

Performance criteria describe the performance needed to demonstrate achievement of the element.

1

Plan lowlevel operations

1.1

Requirement to operate at low level is identified and justified in accordance with workplace procedures and regulatory requirements

1.2

Lowlevel operational hazards are identified, evaluated and risk managed, and appropriate decision is made concerning the safe conduct of these operations

1.3

Aircraft type and performance is assessed as appropriate for low-level operations

1.4

Consultation with all relevant stakeholders involved in a low-level operation is completed to confirm task/operating requirements

1.5

Pre-flight inspection is correctly performed, and aircraft serviceability type and performance are determined as appropriate for the task

1.6

Actual and forecast weather conditions are analysed for effects on low-level operations

1.7

Area of lowlevel operations is identified using chart and geographical features, including the boundary where low flying may commence and normal flight altitude is required

1.8

Action plans for the operation are formulated to ensure safe and effective operation of a helicopter at low level

1.9

Unplanned manoeuvres are avoided

1.10

Compliance is maintained with air traffic control (ATC) instructions, regulatory and reporting requirements

2

Manoeuvre helicopter at low level

2.1

Lowlevel flight manoeuvres are performed safely using pre-planned manoeuvres at planned altitudes

2.2

Effects of wind velocity, false horizons, rising ground and mountainous terrain are managed, and control of helicopter is correctly maintained

2.3

Visual attention is focused outside the cockpit

2.4

Lookout is maintained using a systematic scan technique at a rate determined by traffic density, visibility and/or terrain

2.5

Natural horizon is used as primary attitude reference

2.6

Nose of aircraft is cleared to ensure forward visibility when appropriate

2.7

Situational awareness is maintained at all times during lowlevel manoeuvres

2.8

Helicopter is safely manoeuvred adjacent to power lines and wires

2.9

All obstacles are identified, and are appropriately and safely avoided

2.10

Personnel, animals, vehicles and buildings are identified, and are appropriately and safely avoided

2.11

Height is maintained by visual reference to earth’s surface when below 500 ft AGL

2.12

Weather conditions are monitored and appropriate responses are made

2.13

Fuel status is monitored and appropriate responses are made

2.14

Local and published noise abatement requirements and curfews are observed

3

Perform quick stop manoeuvre

3.1

Deceleration of helicopter from forward flight is initiated into wind, maintaining height to terminate to the hover at nominated hover point

3.2

Aircraft is turned and decelerated or decelerated and turned, maintaining height by controlled action, to terminate to the hover at nominated hover point, into wind

3.3

Deceleration/acceleration manoeuvres are conducted within the time and distance limitations specified while maintaining a constant height above the surface

3.4

Wind velocity is estimated and is appropriately taken into account in manoeuvres

3.5

Helicopter inertia is anticipated and appropriate allowance is made in manoeuvres

3.6

Situation awareness is maintained at all times during a quick stop manoeuvre

3.7

Obstructions are identified, and are appropriately and safely avoided

4

Execute forced landing from 200 ft AGL

4.1

Emergency situations requiring a forced landing are identified

4.2

Appropriate immediate actions are performed

4.3

Landing area within autorotative distance is selected and appropriate action plan is formulated

4.4

Emergency procedures are performed

4.5

Emergency radio messages of intentions are transmitted

4.6

Helicopter is landed and shut down as required

5

Operate at low level in hilly terrain

5.1

Helicopter is safely manoeuvred at low level in hilly terrain

5.2

Safe operating heights relevant to lowlevel operation type are established and maintained

5.3

Terrain flight following techniques are applied during lowlevel operations

5.4

Appropriate geographical features and markers are identified and selected to aid situational awareness

5.5

Rising and falling ground/terrain is identified and approached using safe flying techniques, including identifying abort points and escape routes

5.6

Effects of wind and turbulence in hilly terrain, including lee effects are identified and managed

5.7

Spatial disorientation factors relevant to lowlevel operations are identified and applied to lowlevel manoeuvres

Range is restricted to essential operating conditions and any other variables essential to the work environment.

Evidence required to demonstrate competence in this unit must be relevant to and satisfy all of the requirements of the elements and performance criteria on at least one occasion and include:

adapting to differences in equipment and operating environment in accordance with standard operating procedures

applying awareness of wind effect in the vicinity of obstructions, mountainous terrain and illusions

applying correct navigation techniques and procedures at low level

applying knowledge of the effect of false horizons

applying precautions and required action to minimise, control or eliminate identified hazards

applying relevant helicopter aeronautical knowledge

applying relevant legislation and workplace procedures

communicating effectively with others

completing relevant documentation

complying with airspace requirements and procedures

conducting procedure turns from a fixed ground reference point

flying at various speed and configurations not below safe single-engine speed (+15 KIAS for multi-engine aircraft)

identifying and avoiding power lines and wires by a minimum of 15 feet (ft) when crossing overhead

identifying and correctly using relevant equipment

identifying and justifying a decision to operate a helicopter at low level

identifying escape routes and rising ground

identifying poles, cross trees, wires and insulators to assist power line and wire location

identifying the requirement to operate in the vicinity of power lines and wires and assessing associated risk

implementing contingency plans

implementing work health and safety (WHS)/occupational health and safety (OHS) procedures and relevant regulations

interpreting and following operational instructions and prioritising work

maintaining a constant altitude over featureless terrain or water

managing the aircraft energy state:

identifying high kinetic energy situations

identifying low kinetic energy situations

identifying high potential energy situations

identifying low potential energy situations

modifying activities depending on workplace contingencies, situations and environments

monitoring and anticipating operational problems and hazards and taking appropriate action

monitoring work activities in terms of planned schedule

navigating to a predetermined destination at altitude below 500 ft AGL

operating adjacent to power lines and wires

operating electronic communications equipment to required protocol

performing flight at various speed and configurations

performing lowlevel circuit and landing

performing quick stop manoeuvres:

into wind entry

downwind entry

performing straight flight

performing turns at various bank angles up to 60° angle of bank at normal cruise speed

reading, interpreting and following relevant regulations, instructions, procedures, information and signs

recognising and controlling the illusion of slipping and skidding during turns close to the ground

recognising and managing the impact of sun glare on increased risk of collision with obstacles

recognising the effect of rising and descending terrain on aircraft performance

reporting and/or rectifying identified problems promptly, in accordance with regulatory requirements and workplace procedures

selecting and using required personal protective equipment conforming to industry and WHS/OHS standards

setting local or area barometric pressure adjusted for sea level (QNH) at appropriate stages of flight

using instruments to monitor helicopter performance when operating a helicopter at low level

working collaboratively with others

working systematically with required attention to detail without injury to self or others, or damage to goods or equipment.

Evidence required to demonstrate competence in this unit must be relevant to and satisfy all of the requirements of the elements and performance criteria and include knowledge of:

air traffic requirements

application of the height/velocity diagram/graph

CASR Part 61 Manual of Standards Schedule 3 Aeronautical Knowledge relevant to low level helicopter operations

critical operational conditions, including retreating blade stall, vortex ring, overpitching, loss of anti-torque effectiveness, negative g effects

effect of aircraft inertia at low level

effect of wind velocity on low-level operations

effects of illusions

flight rules and legislation related to low-level ratings

functions and effects of all helicopter controls, including rotor RPM (RRPM) management (governors) and engine acceleration response

human factors during lowlevel operations:

dehydration

fatigue

stress and short/long term impacts

drugs impact

spatial disorientation and illusions

local air traffic control procedures and instructions

lowlevel operational techniques

maximum rate and minimum rate turn criteria

meteorological factors affecting helicopter flight performance during lowlevel flight

obstruction avoidance techniques

operational inspections

operations on, or in vicinity of, non-controlled and controlled aerodromes or airstrips:

aerial inspections

planning and aviation risk management processes

pre-flight and after-flight inspections

problems that may occur when operating a helicopter at low level and appropriate action that should be taken in each case

procedures for using performance charts

purpose and functions of helicopter systems

relevant sections of Civil Aviation Safety Regulations and Civil Aviation Orders

relevant WHS/OHS and environmental procedures and regulations

safety hazards and risks of lowlevel helicopter operations and precautions for controlling risks

terrain following techniques

use of escape routes and rising ground

weather effects on low-level operations.

As a minimum, assessors must satisfy applicable regulatory requirements, which include requirements in the Standards for Registered Training Organisations current at the time of assessment.

As a minimum, assessment must satisfy applicable regulatory requirements, which include requirements in the Standards for Registered Training Organisations current at the time of assessment.

Assessment processes and techniques must be appropriate to the language, literacy and numeracy requirements of the work being performed and the needs of the candidate.

Assessment must occur in workplace operational situations. Where this is not appropriate, assessment must occur in simulated workplace operational situations that reflect workplace conditions.

Resources for assessment must include access to:

a range of relevant exercises, case studies and/or simulations

acceptable means of simulation assessment

applicable documentation including workplace procedures, regulations, codes of practice and operation manuals

relevant materials, tools, equipment and personal protective equipment currently used in industry.

Copy and paste from the following performance criteria to create an observation checklist for each task. When you have finished writing your assessment tool every one of these must have been addressed, preferably several times in a variety of contexts. To ensure this occurs download the assessment matrix for the unit; enter each assessment task as a column header and place check marks against each performance criteria that task addresses.

Observation Checklist

Tasks to be observed according to workplace/college/TAFE policy and procedures, relevant legislation and Codes of Practice Yes No Comments/feedback
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Compliance is maintained with air traffic control (ATC) instructions, regulatory and reporting requirements 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Personnel, animals, vehicles and buildings are identified, and are appropriately and safely avoided 
Height is maintained by visual reference to earth’s surface when below 500 ft AGL 
Weather conditions are monitored and appropriate responses are made 
Fuel status is monitored and appropriate responses are made 
Local and published noise abatement requirements and curfews are observed 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Forms

Assessment Cover Sheet

AVIY0021 - Operate helicopter at low level
Assessment task 1: [title]

Student name:

Student ID:

I declare that the assessment tasks submitted for this unit are my own work.

Student signature:

Result: Competent Not yet competent

Feedback to student

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assessor name:

Signature:

Date:


Assessment Record Sheet

AVIY0021 - Operate helicopter at low level

Student name:

Student ID:

Assessment task 1: [title] Result: Competent Not yet competent

(add lines for each task)

Feedback to student:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Overall assessment result: Competent Not yet competent

Assessor name:

Signature:

Date:

Student signature:

Date: