Assessor Resource

Apply exercise science principles to planning exercise

Assessment tool

Version 1.0
Issue Date: January 2019

This unit applies to exercise trainers who work in facilities that provide a range of exercise programs to general populations including older clients who present with no major health conditions. The unit is applicable to those employed in fitness environments such as fitness venues and those working autonomously in the fitness industry.

This unit describes the performance outcomes, knowledge and skills required to utilise a broad knowledge of exercise science principles in fitness training.

You may want to include more information here about the target group and the purpose of the assessments (eg formative, summative, recognition)



Employability Skills

This unit contains employability skills.

Evidence Required

List the assessment methods to be used and the context and resources required for assessment. Copy and paste the relevant sections from the evidence guide below and then re-write these in plain English.

The evidence guide provides advice on assessment and must be read in conjunction with the performance criteria, required skills and knowledge, range statement and the Assessment Guidelines for the Training Package.

Overview of assessment

Critical aspects for assessment and evidence required to demonstrate competency in this unit

Evidence of the following is essential:

monitor the physiological responses of the body to exercise.

explain the adaptations the body makes to exercise.

conduct aerobic function assessments.

monitor the temperature regulation of the body during exercise.

Context of and specific resources for assessment

This unit of competency must be assessed in the context of fitness in Australia. For valid and reliable assessment the fitness activity should closely replicate the work environment. The environment should be safe, with the hazards, circumstances and equipment likely to be encountered in a real workplace.

This unit of competence should be assessed through the observation of processes and procedures, oral and or written questioning on required knowledge and skills and consideration of required attitudes.

Where performance is not directly observed and or is required to be demonstrated over a "period of time" and or in a "number of locations", any evidence should be authenticated by colleagues, supervisors, clients or other appropriate persons.

Method of assessment

A range of assessment methods should be used to assess practical skills and knowledge. The following examples are appropriate for this unit:

oral or written questioning to assess knowledge of healthy eating guidelines

portfolio demonstrating evidence of accurate body composition appraisals

third-party reports from supervisors detailing work performance.

Holistic assessment with other units relevant to the industry sector, workplace and job role is recommended..

Guidance information for assessment

Submission Requirements

List each assessment task's title, type (eg project, observation/demonstration, essay, assingnment, checklist) and due date here

Assessment task 1: [title]      Due date:

(add new lines for each of the assessment tasks)

Assessment Tasks

Copy and paste from the following data to produce each assessment task. Write these in plain English and spell out how, when and where the task is to be carried out, under what conditions, and what resources are needed. Include guidelines about how well the candidate has to perform a task for it to be judged satisfactory.

Required skills

communication skills including use of common terms when providing instructions clients during fitness activities

literacy skills to

source, read, comprehend and apply relevant exercise science principles to exercise plans

problem-solving skills to determine modifications due to adaptations of the body to exercise

Required knowledge

basic exercise physiology


biomechanics and its application to exercise planning

physiological responses to physical activity

adaptations of the body to exercise

environmental conditions and their relationship to exercise planning.

The range statement relates to the unit of competency as a whole. It allows for different work environments and situations that may affect performance. Bold italicised wording, if used in the performance criteria, is detailed below. Essential operating conditions that may be present with training and assessment (depending on the work situation, needs of the candidate, accessibility of the item, and local industry and regional contexts) may also be included.

Basic mechanical concepts may include:

types of levers

mechanical advantage.

Cardiovascular system may include:

the major physical characteristics of blood and the functions of its major components

the structure and function of the heart and its major components

the structural and functional characteristics of the conduction systems of the heart

the major events of the cardiac cycle

the structure and function of the various types of blood vessels

the major arteries and veins of the circulatory system

the control of blood flow to skeletal muscle.

Concepts and principles of mechanics may include:

mechanical concepts modelling human movement


centre of mass


force and momentum

force production by the body

mechanical concepts related to common exercise equipment

resistance and or resistance arm

force and or force arm

axis of rotation

variable resistance.

Directional terms may include:




plantar flexion













Energy systems may include:

duration and intensity of exercise effect energy contribution from the main energy systems utilised during different forms of exercise

adenosine triphosphate


anaerobic glycolysis

exercise programs that utilise of fatty acid metabolism

energy system adaptations

effect of energy intake affects the breakdown of energy substrates

body systems involved in production of energy.

Environmental conditions may include:

adaptations of the body to hot and cold environmental conditions

physiological and biomechanical differences of exercising in the heat compared to normal adaptive conditions

physiological and biomechanical differences of exercising in the cold compared to normal adaptive conditions

acute and chronic effects of exercising in water

the mechanism whereby the body regulates internal temperature in responses to environmental changes and exercise

dehydration and the importance of water intake and or re-hydration during exercise

physiological demands placed on the body from smoking

need for a comprehensive preparation phase to avoid heat or cold stress


general preparation

pre stretch

specific preparation.

Fitness equipment may include:





stationary cycles

VO2 max shuttle run test recordings

heart rate monitors

ratings of perceived exertion

'norm' charts.

Forces may include:




centre of gravity

centre of force, equipment and muscles.

Functional appraisals may include:


aerobic responses

cardiovascular responses




Measurement methods may include:

heart rate response

pulse response

blood pressure response

respiration rate response

skin colour response

perceived exertion

exercise form

work output.

Metabolic products may include:


carbon dioxide


Muscle groups may include:

prime mover



Physiological responses may include:

the acute responses to the onset of exercise

cardiovascular system

heart rate response

blood volume

blood pressure

stroke volume

cardiac output

respiratory system

respiratory rate

immune system

nervous system

musculoskeletal system

endocrine system

the regulation of blood flow during exercise

the shifts in the distribution of blood to various areas of the body during exercise.

Physiological adaptations may include:

distinguish between central and peripheral fitness adaptations

explain the central and peripheral adaptations of the body to anaerobic training and aerobic training.

Processes may include:




use of protein as fuel.

Range of motion may include:

sit and reach



Skeletal anatomy may include:


structure and mechanics of bone

the biomechanical properties of bone

the responses of bone to weight bearing activities

bone formation, growth, and remodelling

the influence of diet on bone homeostasis

the influence of age on bone homeostasis

major bones and major landmarks of the skeleton

bone markings


















directional terms used to define positions of bones and landmarks

structural regionalisation of the vertebral column and the implications for movement

normal and abnormal spinal curvatures and the implications of these conditions for physical activity


joints related to exercise










pubic symphysis







structure and function of joints

fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial joints

anatomical structure of joints.

Skeletal muscle contraction may include:

the main features of nerves and the nervous system related to exercise

nervous system classification and structure

central or peripheral

afferent or efferent

voluntary or involuntary

structure of a motor neuron

generation and conduction a motor impulse

reflex arcs

the neural innervation of muscles for movement and proprioception

the types of muscle contraction, and the relationship between muscle force and external load for each

the factors influencing muscle contraction

length tension relationship

motor unit recruitment

muscle fibre types

mechanical advantage of joint position

force velocity relationships

size principle

reciprocal inhibition,

agonist or antagonist relationship.

Structure and function of muscles may include:

the transfer of metabolites between blood and muscles

the general relationship between nerves and skeletal muscle

the major postural muscles

pectoralis minor

serratus anterior



pronator teres


flexor carpi radialis

palmaris longus

extensor carpi radialis longus

flexor carpi ulnaris

extensor carpi ulnaris

extensor digitorum

external oblique

rhomboid major

rhomboid minor

levator scapulae

teres minor



internal oblique

gluteus maximum

gluteus medius

gluteus minimus

transverse abdominis

iliotibial tract

adductor magnus

biceps femoris




tensor fasciae latae


adductor longus


the purpose of connective tissues



radial collateral ligament

ulnar collateral ligament


fibular, ie, lateral, collateral ligament

patella ligament

anterior cruciate ligament

tibial, ie, medial, collateral ligament

posterior cruciate ligament


acromio clavicular ligament



achilles tendon

patella tendon

pelvic floor muscles

Weight bearing may include:

own body weight

added resistance

pin loaded


free weight

air braked

water environment.

Copy and paste from the following performance criteria to create an observation checklist for each task. When you have finished writing your assessment tool every one of these must have been addressed, preferably several times in a variety of contexts. To ensure this occurs download the assessment matrix for the unit; enter each assessment task as a column header and place check marks against each performance criteria that task addresses.

Observation Checklist

Tasks to be observed according to workplace/college/TAFE policy and procedures, relevant legislation and Codes of Practice Yes No Comments/feedback
Apply knowledge of skeletal anatomy to exercise planning, programming and instruction. 
Apply knowledge of the integrated monitoring and control of skeletal muscle contraction by the nervous system to exercise planning, programming and instruction. 
Apply knowledge of the structure, range of motion and function of muscles, muscle groups and directional terms to exercise planning, programming and instruction. 
Analyse and apply the forces acting on the body during exercise and basic mechanical concepts to exercise. 
Apply concepts and principles of mechanics to exercise. 
Use the common terms used to qualify the basic principles of biomechanics when instructing fitness activities. 
Identify and explain the basic lever systems in both anatomical and mechanical lever systems to clients. 
Use the lever systems in the human body and their role in movement and stability to provide safe and effective exercises for clients. 
Take into account the use of levers and cams in resistance equipment to alter the force required by muscles and affect joint stability when developing programs and instructing fitness activities. 
Take into account the effect of changes in lever length on muscle force output in both anatomical and mechanical lever when instructing fitness activities. 
Apply knowledge of the structure and function of the cardio vascular system to exercise. 
Apply knowledge of the structure, processes and function of body energy systems involved in the storage, transport, and utilisation of energy. 
Apply knowledge of the physiological responses of the human body to a single bout of physical activity to exercise. 
Apply knowledge of the physiological adaptations and weight bearing of the human body to regular exercise to exercise planning, programming and instruction. 
Apply knowledge of the physiological responses to physical activity in various environmental conditions to exercise planning, programming and instruction. 


Assessment Cover Sheet

SISFFIT419A - Apply exercise science principles to planning exercise
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Assessment Record Sheet

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