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Elements and Performance Criteria

  1. Plan lowlevel operations
  2. Requirement to operate at low level is identified and justified in accordance with workplace procedures and regulatory requirements
  3. Lowlevel operational hazards are identified, evaluated and risk managed, and appropriate decision is made concerning the safe conduct of these operations
  4. Aircraft type and performance is assessed as appropriate for low-level operations
  5. Consultation with all relevant stakeholders involved in a low-level operation is completed to confirm task/operating requirements
  6. Pre-flight inspection is correctly performed, and aircraft serviceability type and performance are determined as appropriate for the task
  7. Actual and forecast weather conditions are analysed for effects on low-level operations
  8. Area of lowlevel operations is identified using chart and geographical features, including the boundary where low flying may commence and normal flight altitude is required
  9. Action plans for the operation are formulated to ensure safe and effective operation of a helicopter at low level
  10. Unplanned manoeuvres are avoided
  11. Manoeuvre helicopter at low level
  12. Lowlevel flight manoeuvres are performed safely using pre-planned manoeuvres at planned altitudes
  13. Effects of wind velocity, false horizons, rising ground and mountainous terrain are managed, and control of helicopter is correctly maintained
  14. Visual attention is focused outside the cockpit
  15. Lookout is maintained using a systematic scan technique at a rate determined by traffic density, visibility and/or terrain
  16. Natural horizon is used as primary attitude reference
  17. Nose of aircraft is cleared to ensure forward visibility when appropriate
  18. Situational awareness is maintained at all times during lowlevel manoeuvres
  19. Helicopter is safely manoeuvred adjacent to power lines and wires
  20. All obstacles are identified, and are appropriately and safely avoided
  21. Perform quick stop manoeuvre
  22. Deceleration of helicopter from forward flight is initiated into wind, maintaining height to terminate to the hover at nominated hover point
  23. Aircraft is turned and decelerated or decelerated and turned, maintaining height by controlled action, to terminate to the hover at nominated hover point, into wind
  24. Deceleration/acceleration manoeuvres are conducted within the time and distance limitations specified while maintaining a constant height above the surface
  25. Wind velocity is estimated and is appropriately taken into account in manoeuvres
  26. Helicopter inertia is anticipated and appropriate allowance is made in manoeuvres
  27. Situation awareness is maintained at all times during a quick stop manoeuvre
  28. Obstructions are identified, and are appropriately and safely avoided
  29. Execute forced landing from 200 ft AGL
  30. Emergency situations requiring a forced landing are identified
  31. Appropriate immediate actions are performed
  32. Landing area within autorotative distance is selected and appropriate action plan is formulated
  33. Emergency procedures are performed
  34. Emergency radio messages of intentions are transmitted
  35. Helicopter is landed and shut down as required
  36. Operate at low level in hilly terrain
  37. Helicopter is safely manoeuvred at low level in hilly terrain
  38. Safe operating heights relevant to lowlevel operation type are established and maintained
  39. Terrain flight following techniques are applied during lowlevel operations
  40. Appropriate geographical features and markers are identified and selected to aid situational awareness
  41. Rising and falling ground/terrain is identified and approached using safe flying techniques, including identifying abort points and escape routes
  42. Effects of wind and turbulence in hilly terrain, including lee effects are identified and managed
  43. Spatial disorientation factors relevant to lowlevel operations are identified and applied to lowlevel manoeuvres

Performance Evidence

Evidence required to demonstrate competence in this unit must be relevant to and satisfy all of the requirements of the elements and performance criteria on at least one occasion and include:

adapting to differences in equipment and operating environment in accordance with standard operating procedures

applying awareness of wind effect in the vicinity of obstructions, mountainous terrain and illusions

applying correct navigation techniques and procedures at low level

applying knowledge of the effect of false horizons

applying precautions and required action to minimise, control or eliminate identified hazards

applying relevant helicopter aeronautical knowledge

applying relevant legislation and workplace procedures

communicating effectively with others

completing relevant documentation

complying with airspace requirements and procedures

conducting procedure turns from a fixed ground reference point

flying at various speed and configurations not below safe single-engine speed (+15 KIAS for multi-engine aircraft)

identifying and avoiding power lines and wires by a minimum of 15 feet (ft) when crossing overhead

identifying and correctly using relevant equipment

identifying and justifying a decision to operate a helicopter at low level

identifying escape routes and rising ground

identifying poles, cross trees, wires and insulators to assist power line and wire location

identifying the requirement to operate in the vicinity of power lines and wires and assessing associated risk

implementing contingency plans

implementing work health and safety (WHS)/occupational health and safety (OHS) procedures and relevant regulations

interpreting and following operational instructions and prioritising work

maintaining a constant altitude over featureless terrain or water

managing the aircraft energy state:

identifying high kinetic energy situations

identifying low kinetic energy situations

identifying high potential energy situations

identifying low potential energy situations

modifying activities depending on workplace contingencies, situations and environments

monitoring and anticipating operational problems and hazards and taking appropriate action

monitoring work activities in terms of planned schedule

navigating to a predetermined destination at altitude below 500 ft AGL

operating adjacent to power lines and wires

operating electronic communications equipment to required protocol

performing flight at various speed and configurations

performing lowlevel circuit and landing

performing quick stop manoeuvres:

into wind entry

downwind entry

performing straight flight

performing turns at various bank angles up to 60° angle of bank at normal cruise speed

reading, interpreting and following relevant regulations, instructions, procedures, information and signs

recognising and controlling the illusion of slipping and skidding during turns close to the ground

recognising and managing the impact of sun glare on increased risk of collision with obstacles

recognising the effect of rising and descending terrain on aircraft performance

reporting and/or rectifying identified problems promptly, in accordance with regulatory requirements and workplace procedures

selecting and using required personal protective equipment conforming to industry and WHS/OHS standards

setting local or area barometric pressure adjusted for sea level (QNH) at appropriate stages of flight

using instruments to monitor helicopter performance when operating a helicopter at low level

working collaboratively with others

working systematically with required attention to detail without injury to self or others, or damage to goods or equipment.

Knowledge Evidence

Evidence required to demonstrate competence in this unit must be relevant to and satisfy all of the requirements of the elements and performance criteria and include knowledge of:

air traffic requirements

application of the height/velocity diagram/graph

CASR Part 61 Manual of Standards Schedule 3 Aeronautical Knowledge relevant to low level helicopter operations

critical operational conditions, including retreating blade stall, vortex ring, overpitching, loss of anti-torque effectiveness, negative g effects

effect of aircraft inertia at low level

effect of wind velocity on low-level operations

effects of illusions

flight rules and legislation related to low-level ratings

functions and effects of all helicopter controls, including rotor RPM (RRPM) management (governors) and engine acceleration response

human factors during lowlevel operations:



stress and short/long term impacts

drugs impact

spatial disorientation and illusions

local air traffic control procedures and instructions

lowlevel operational techniques

maximum rate and minimum rate turn criteria

meteorological factors affecting helicopter flight performance during lowlevel flight

obstruction avoidance techniques

operational inspections

operations on, or in vicinity of, non-controlled and controlled aerodromes or airstrips:

aerial inspections

planning and aviation risk management processes

pre-flight and after-flight inspections

problems that may occur when operating a helicopter at low level and appropriate action that should be taken in each case

procedures for using performance charts

purpose and functions of helicopter systems

relevant sections of Civil Aviation Safety Regulations and Civil Aviation Orders

relevant WHS/OHS and environmental procedures and regulations

safety hazards and risks of lowlevel helicopter operations and precautions for controlling risks

terrain following techniques

use of escape routes and rising ground

weather effects on low-level operations.