This unit applies to exercise trainers who work in facilities that provide a range of exercise programs to general populations including older clients who present with no major health conditions. The unit is applicable to those employed in fitness environments such as fitness venues and those working autonomously in the fitness industry.
Elements and Performance Criteria
1. Apply a knowledge of musculoskeletal anatomy to exercise planning, programming, and instruction
1.1. Apply knowledge of skeletal anatomy to exercise planning, programming and instruction.
1.2. Apply knowledge of the integrated monitoring and control of skeletal muscle contraction by the nervous system to exercise planning, programming and instruction.
1.3. Apply knowledge of the structure, range of motion and function of muscles, muscle groups and directional terms to exercise planning, programming and instruction.
2. Apply related concepts and principles of mechanics to exercise
2.1. Analyse and apply the forces acting on the body during exercise and basic mechanical concepts to exercise.
2.2. Apply concepts and principles of mechanics to exercise.
2.3. Use the common terms used to qualify the basic principles of biomechanics when instructing fitness activities.
2.4. Identify and explain the basic lever systems in both anatomical and mechanical lever systems to clients.
2.5. Use the lever systems in the human body and their role in movement and stability to provide safe and effective exercises for clients.
2.6. Take into account the use of levers and cams in resistance equipment to alter the force required by muscles and affect joint stability when developing programs and instructing fitness activities.
2.7. Take into account the effect of changes in lever length on muscle force output in both anatomical and mechanical lever when instructing fitness activities.
3. Apply related concepts of physiology to exercise
3.1. Apply knowledge of the structure and function of the cardio vascular system to exercise.
3.2. Apply knowledge of the structure, processes and function of body energy systems involved in the storage, transport, and utilisation of energy.
3.3. Apply knowledge of the physiological responses of the human body to a single bout of physical activity to exercise.
3.4. Apply knowledge of the physiological adaptations and weight bearing of the human body to regular exercise to exercise planning, programming and instruction.
3.5. Apply knowledge of the physiological responses to physical activity in various environmental conditions to exercise planning, programming and instruction.
communication skills including use of common terms when providing instructions clients during fitness activities
literacy skills to
source, read, comprehend and apply relevant exercise science principles to exercise plans
problem-solving skills to determine modifications due to adaptations of the body to exercise
basic exercise physiology
biomechanics and its application to exercise planning
physiological responses to physical activity
adaptations of the body to exercise
environmental conditions and their relationship to exercise planning.
The evidence guide provides advice on assessment and must be read in conjunction with the performance criteria, required skills and knowledge, range statement and the Assessment Guidelines for the Training Package.
Overview of assessment
Critical aspects for assessment and evidence required to demonstrate competency in this unit
Evidence of the following is essential:
monitor the physiological responses of the body to exercise.
explain the adaptations the body makes to exercise.
conduct aerobic function assessments.
monitor the temperature regulation of the body during exercise.
Context of and specific resources for assessment
This unit of competency must be assessed in the context of fitness in Australia. For valid and reliable assessment the fitness activity should closely replicate the work environment. The environment should be safe, with the hazards, circumstances and equipment likely to be encountered in a real workplace.
This unit of competence should be assessed through the observation of processes and procedures, oral and or written questioning on required knowledge and skills and consideration of required attitudes.
Where performance is not directly observed and or is required to be demonstrated over a "period of time" and or in a "number of locations", any evidence should be authenticated by colleagues, supervisors, clients or other appropriate persons.
Method of assessment
A range of assessment methods should be used to assess practical skills and knowledge. The following examples are appropriate for this unit:
oral or written questioning to assess knowledge of healthy eating guidelines
portfolio demonstrating evidence of accurate body composition appraisals
third-party reports from supervisors detailing work performance.
Holistic assessment with other units relevant to the industry sector, workplace and job role is recommended..
Guidance information for assessment
The range statement relates to the unit of competency as a whole. It allows for different work environments and situations that may affect performance. Bold italicised wording, if used in the performance criteria, is detailed below. Essential operating conditions that may be present with training and assessment (depending on the work situation, needs of the candidate, accessibility of the item, and local industry and regional contexts) may also be included.
Basic mechanical concepts may include:
types of levers
Cardiovascular system may include:
the major physical characteristics of blood and the functions of its major components
the structure and function of the heart and its major components
the structural and functional characteristics of the conduction systems of the heart
the major events of the cardiac cycle
the structure and function of the various types of blood vessels
the major arteries and veins of the circulatory system
the control of blood flow to skeletal muscle.
Concepts and principles of mechanics may include:
mechanical concepts modelling human movement
centre of mass
force and momentum
force production by the body
mechanical concepts related to common exercise equipment
resistance and or resistance arm
force and or force arm
axis of rotation
Directional terms may include:
Energy systems may include:
duration and intensity of exercise effect energy contribution from the main energy systems utilised during different forms of exercise
exercise programs that utilise of fatty acid metabolism
energy system adaptations
effect of energy intake affects the breakdown of energy substrates
body systems involved in production of energy.
Environmental conditions may include:
adaptations of the body to hot and cold environmental conditions
physiological and biomechanical differences of exercising in the heat compared to normal adaptive conditions
physiological and biomechanical differences of exercising in the cold compared to normal adaptive conditions
acute and chronic effects of exercising in water
the mechanism whereby the body regulates internal temperature in responses to environmental changes and exercise
dehydration and the importance of water intake and or re-hydration during exercise
physiological demands placed on the body from smoking
need for a comprehensive preparation phase to avoid heat or cold stress
Fitness equipment may include:
VO2 max shuttle run test recordings
heart rate monitors
ratings of perceived exertion
Forces may include:
centre of gravity
centre of force, equipment and muscles.
Functional appraisals may include:
Measurement methods may include:
heart rate response
blood pressure response
respiration rate response
skin colour response
Metabolic products may include:
Muscle groups may include:
Physiological responses may include:
the acute responses to the onset of exercise
heart rate response
the regulation of blood flow during exercise
the shifts in the distribution of blood to various areas of the body during exercise.
Physiological adaptations may include:
distinguish between central and peripheral fitness adaptations
explain the central and peripheral adaptations of the body to anaerobic training and aerobic training.
Processes may include:
use of protein as fuel.
Range of motion may include:
sit and reach
Skeletal anatomy may include:
structure and mechanics of bone
the biomechanical properties of bone
the responses of bone to weight bearing activities
bone formation, growth, and remodelling
the influence of diet on bone homeostasis
the influence of age on bone homeostasis
major bones and major landmarks of the skeleton
directional terms used to define positions of bones and landmarks
structural regionalisation of the vertebral column and the implications for movement
normal and abnormal spinal curvatures and the implications of these conditions for physical activity
joints related to exercise
structure and function of joints
fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial joints
anatomical structure of joints.
Skeletal muscle contraction may include:
the main features of nerves and the nervous system related to exercise
nervous system classification and structure
central or peripheral
afferent or efferent
voluntary or involuntary
structure of a motor neuron
generation and conduction a motor impulse
the neural innervation of muscles for movement and proprioception
the types of muscle contraction, and the relationship between muscle force and external load for each
the factors influencing muscle contraction
length tension relationship
motor unit recruitment
muscle fibre types
mechanical advantage of joint position
force velocity relationships
agonist or antagonist relationship.
Structure and function of muscles may include:
the transfer of metabolites between blood and muscles
the general relationship between nerves and skeletal muscle
the major postural muscles
flexor carpi radialis
extensor carpi radialis longus
flexor carpi ulnaris
extensor carpi ulnaris
tensor fasciae latae
the purpose of connective tissues
radial collateral ligament
ulnar collateral ligament
fibular, ie, lateral, collateral ligament
anterior cruciate ligament
tibial, ie, medial, collateral ligament
posterior cruciate ligament
acromio clavicular ligament
pelvic floor muscles
Weight bearing may include:
own body weight
This unit contains employability skills.