This unit describes a fundamental workplace OHS risk management skill for those working in the service industries and applies to the full range of industry sectors and environments.
Under OHS law, staff members at all levels are required to participate in the identification, assessment and control of hazards but the degree of participation may vary. This unit reflects the active participation of frontline operational personnel who work with some level of autonomy or under limited supervision and guidance from others. They are actively involved in contributing to or making decisions on how best to control hazards. However, the unit could apply to personnel working at any level, including unsupervised staff members with significant responsibility in the workplace, owner-operators, supervisors and managers.
Risk assessments are commonly conducted as a team effort and a person achieving competence in this unit could either actively participate in group assessments or take a lead role in coordinating a group approach.
Elements and Performance Criteria
Access and use hazard identification tools and template documents according to organisation procedures.
Use appropriate methods to identify actual or foreseeable hazards that have the potential to harm the health and safety of workers or anyone else in the workplace.
Involve other personnel where appropriate in hazard identification process.
Keep records of hazards identified according to organisation procedures.
Assess the safety risk associated with a hazard.
Access and use risk assessment tools and template documents according to organisation procedures.
Consult with a range of personnel within the organisation to achieve broad input into risk assessment process.
Participate with or involve other personnel where appropriate in the risk assessment process according to consultation requirements of OHS legislation.
Collect sufficient evidence of the type and level of risk that the identified hazard poses.
Use a systematic and four-staged hierarchical process model to conduct a risk assessment.
Document the outcome of the risk assessment and proposed actions.
Keep records of risk assessments according to organisation procedures.
Eliminate or control the risk.
Consult with a range of personnel within the organisation to achieve broad input into risk control process.
Implement control measures according to individual level of responsibility or refer to appropriate personnel for permission or further action.
Where possible eliminate the risk and if not practical take actions to control the risk using a five-step hierarchical approach.
Review the risk assessment process.
Identify inadequacies in hazard identification and risk assessment processes and resolve or report them to the appropriate person.
Document any changes to the process and implement new processes for future risk management activities.
This section describes the essential skills and knowledge and their level, required for this unit.
The following skills must be assessed as part of this unit:
ability to access appropriate hazard identification and risk assessment templates
high-level communication skills to communicate and consult with colleagues on issues of hazard identification and assessment of risks associated with those hazards
literacy skills to read and interpret:
complex materials describing regulatory requirements that relate to OHS management
organisational policies and procedures and template documents.
literacy skills to write hazard identification and risk assessment documents
critical thinking skills to allow for rational and logical evaluation of hazards and associated risks, and to apply or suggest effective controls while incorporating the views of other people consulted in the workplace.
The following knowledge must be assessed as part of this unit:
broad and working knowledge of relevant state or territory OHS legislation, specifically requirements for:
when, where and how hazards must be identified
when, where and how risk assessments must be conducted
incorporation of appropriate consultation in the hazard identification and risk assessment process
OHS consultative mechanisms commonly used by organisations
role of OHS committees or OHS representatives as mechanisms for consultation
context of risk assessments within an overall OHS management system
key elements of OHS risk assessments
format and use of appropriate hazard identification and risk assessment templates
range of methods for identifying hazards in the workplace
common methods applied to the assessment of safety risks, such as the four-staged process model recommended and published by state and territory OHS authorities
common methods applied to controlling risks, such as the five-stepped hierarchical process model recommended and published by state and territory OHS authorities
OHS record-keeping procedures
specific organisational policy and procedures for OHS management.
The evidence guide provides advice on assessment and must be read in conjunction with the performance criteria, required skills and knowledge, the range statement and the Assessment Guidelines for this Training Package.
Critical aspects for assessment and evidence required to demonstrate competency in this unit
Evidence of the following is essential:
project or work activities that show the candidate's ability to identify workplace hazards, and assess and control safety risks for a given service industry operation in line with regulatory requirements
ability to access and use appropriate template documents for hazard identification and risk assessment
ability to apply appropriate methods for hazard identification, and risk assessment and control
knowledge and understanding of the consultative approach to hazard identification, assessment of associated safety risks and implementation of controls
knowledge of OHS legislation requirements for hazard identification, and risk assessment and control
ability to implement and monitor OHS management practices within the context of an established system where policies and procedures already exist
knowledge of specific and relevant OHS legislative requirements
demonstration of skills in conducting risk assessments for different hazard scenarios.
Context of and specific resources for assessment
Assessment must ensure:
access to an operation for which hazard identification and risk assessment can be undertaken or access to comprehensive and sufficient information about that operation to allow the candidate to conduct hazard identification and risk assessment activities
use of the appropriate state or territory legislation, codes of practice and standards issued by regulatory authorities or industry groups
use of OHS information, such as manuals issued by industry associations or commercial publishers
access to current organisation policies and procedures, and hazard identification and risk assessment template documents
involvement of a team operating in a specified workplace so that consultative actions can be implemented.
Methods of assessment
A range of assessment methods should be used to assess the practical skills and knowledge required to identify hazards, and assess and control safety risks. The following examples are appropriate for this unit:
direct observation of the candidate consulting with appropriate colleagues about hazard identification, and risk assessment and control
direct observation of the candidate conducting a hazard identification and risk assessment process
evaluation of hazard identification and risk assessment reports prepared by the candidate detailing how safety issues were addressed for a given project or work activity
evaluation of projects conducted by the candidate to address safety issues in a given workplace
case studies and problem-solving exercises to assess safety responses to different workplace hazards
written and oral questions or interviews to test knowledge of legislation and requirements relating to hazard identification and risk assessment
review of portfolios of evidence and third-party workplace reports of on-the-job performance by the candidate.
Holistic assessment with other units relevant to the industry sector, workplace and job role is recommended, for example:
SITXOHS004B Implement and monitor workplace health, safety and security practices.
The range statement relates to the unit of competency as a whole. It allows for different work environments and situations that may affect performance. Bold italicised wording in the performance criteria is detailed below.
Hazard identification tools and risk assessment tools and template documents may include:
self-designed tools developed for the organisation as part of an OHS management system
tools and templates developed:
by external consultancy services
by industry associations for use by member businesses
for public use and found within business management publications, including those developed by OHS regulatory authorities
Appropriate methods to identify actual or foreseeable hazards include:
conduct of site safety audits
completion of a safety checklist
inspections of the workplace
observation of daily activities
investigation of accidents and incidents
review of injury or illness registers
environmental monitoring of the workplace
investigation of staff complaints or reports of safety concerns
review of staff feedback via consultative processes, such as meetings, surveys or suggestion box submissions.
Anyone else in the workplace may include:
visiting supplier representatives
The workplace may include:
operational offices of the business
retail outlet of any sort
sport or recreation facility
field location of the business where services are delivered to customers
any place where the organisation normally conducts its business activities, for example:
in a tourism business this could be any destination to which customers are taken on tour
for an event it could be any location where the event happens.
Hazard may include:
beverage dispensing systems using inert gases
physical environment, for example:
working space of workers
hot and cold environments
climate, weather or exposure, such as insufficient shade and protection from rain, sun or wind
exposure to flood, fire and storm
prevailing noise levels
equipment designed to assist with or replace manual handling
wild animals and local wildlife
customers' abilities to fully engage in all activities, e.g. health issues
hazards associated with activities to be undertaken
plant, for example:
working practices, for example:
opening and closing procedures
any standard operating procedures for work-related tasks
inappropriate rostering and shift allocation
length of time spent at certain task and allocation of breaks
security issues, for example:
theft and robbery
irrational or angry, drunk or drug-affected customers
Other personnel who jointly participate in consultation, hazard identification, and risk assessment and control may include:
staff under supervision
peers and colleagues
OHS committee members.
Four-staged hierarchical process model must include:
identifying the injury or illness consequences that could result from the hazard
determining the exposure to the hazard
estimating the probability that an incident or injury will occur
determining an overall risk level for the identified hazard.
Five-step hierarchical approach must include:
substituting a system of work or equipment with something safer
isolating the hazard
introducing engineering controls
using personal protective equipment
implementing combined control methods to minimise risk.
Occupational Health and Safety
This unit contains employability skills.