Assessor Resource

Manage human performance and team resources during air traffic control operations

Assessment tool

Version 1.0
Issue Date: April 2019

This unit will prepare the operator to monitor their performance, manage human error and deal with external threats to operational services such as weather, emergencies, reduced airways facilities and degraded modes of operation. It also prepares the operator to work within an ATC team with the necessary duty of care, work ethic and the efficient use of resources.

Work must be carried out in compliance with relevant air traffic services regulatory requirements of the Civil Aviation Safety Authority.

Use for ADF Aviation is to be in accordance with relevant Defence Orders and Instructions and applicable CASA compliance.

Work is performed under various levels of supervision dependent on workplace context, and in a team environment. Team performance is as important as individual performance.

Operations are undertaken across a variety of operational contexts within the Australian aviation industry.

Work is performed by air traffic control staff who are both technically competent and aware of the human factors involved while working in complex systems such as ATS. Human factors will not replace technical competence but will complement specialist knowledge, skills and attitudes. Training in the technical specialty and in human factors will provide the system s imperative for total interaction.

An inevitable consequence of human-operated systems and work is that human error will occur randomly. The nature of these errors will differ according to the environment in which they are made. In aviation, which is generally considered to be a stable environment, errors are likely to result from a normal variation in human performance - from acceptable to good and poor - and will form a normal distribution. Errors can involve practices that omit critical procedural steps and attempts to generalise situations that are significantly different.

This unit is packaged at Diploma level.

This unit involves the skills and knowledge required to manage human performance and team resources during air traffic control operations. This includes maximising personal performance in the air traffic control (ATC) workplace by minimising human error, working effectively and providing leadership within a team, and monitoring and managing behaviour influenced by psychological and physiological factors. Licensing, legislative, regulatory or certification requirements are applicable to this unit.

You may want to include more information here about the target group and the purpose of the assessments (eg formative, summative, recognition)


Not applicable.

Employability Skills

This unit contains employability skills.

Evidence Required

List the assessment methods to be used and the context and resources required for assessment. Copy and paste the relevant sections from the evidence guide below and then re-write these in plain English.

The Evidence Guide provides advice on assessment and must be read in conjunction with the performance criteria, required knowledge and skills, the range statement and the assessment guidelines for this Training Package.

Critical aspects for assessment and evidence required to demonstrate competency in this unit

The evidence required to demonstrate competency in this unit must be relevant to and satisfy all of the requirements of the elements and performance criteria of this unit and include demonstration of applying:

the underpinning knowledge and skills

relevant legislation and workplace procedures

other relevant aspects of the range statement

Context of and specific resources for assessment

Performance is demonstrated consistently over a period of time and in a suitable range of contexts

Resources for assessment include:

a range of relevant exercises, case studies and/or other simulated practical and knowledge assessment, and/or

access to an appropriate range of relevant operational situations in the workplace

In both real and simulated environments, access is required to:

relevant and appropriate materials and equipment, and

applicable documentation including workplace procedures, regulations, codes of practice and operation manuals

Method of assessment

Assessment of this unit must be undertaken by a registered training organisation

As a minimum, assessment of knowledge must be conducted through appropriate written/oral tests

Practical assessment must occur:

through activities in an appropriately simulated environment at the registered training organisation, and/or

in an appropriate range of situations in the workplace

Submission Requirements

List each assessment task's title, type (eg project, observation/demonstration, essay, assingnment, checklist) and due date here

Assessment task 1: [title]      Due date:

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Assessment Tasks

Copy and paste from the following data to produce each assessment task. Write these in plain English and spell out how, when and where the task is to be carried out, under what conditions, and what resources are needed. Include guidelines about how well the candidate has to perform a task for it to be judged satisfactory.


This describes the essential knowledge and skills and their level required for this unit.

Required knowledge:

Relevant sections of Civil Aviation Safety Regulations

Relevant OH&S procedures and regulations

Psychological factors affecting human performance including stress, workload, situation awareness, information processing, fatigue, vigilance, decision making and attention; and the management of these factors

Physiological factors affecting human performance including effects of hypoxia; use of medication and/or drugs including alcohol; sleep; vision and auditory limitations; and the management of these factors

Incident and accident causation models, including Reason and SHELL

Teamwork and synergy, including team resource management

Principles and practices for leadership and followership within work teams

Threat and error management

HMI setup to enhance performance

Duty of care principles and application in the air traffic services workplace

Just culture policy and principles including individual and organisational accountabilities surrounding the reporting and investigation of ATS attributable safety occurrences

Organisational structure, culture and business aims

Medical requirements for an air traffic controller licence, including responsibilities for fitness for duty

Refresher or recurrent training requirements to maintain competency

Recency and currency requirements

Fatigue management systems and the effects of shift work

Regulatory requirements covering length of shift and break requirements

Aeronautical decision-making techniques

Required skills:

Actively listen when managing human performance and team resources during air traffic control operations

Acknowledge, inquire and observe in the course of managing human performance and team resources during air traffic control operations

Read and interpret instructions, regulations, procedures and other information relevant to the management of human performance and team resources during air traffic control operations

Process information by sampling all information inputs; perceiving, comprehending and projecting that information; making decisions; implementing the decisions through control actions; and monitoring the outputs including making fine adjustments as necessary

Communicate in a team by exchanging information through assigning responsibility, acknowledgment, inquiring, and by recognising and noting facts that create team rapport and enhance team outputs

Request assistance from others when required

Adapt appropriately to cultural differences in the workplace, including modes of behaviour and interactions with others

Promptly report and/or rectify any identified problems that may occur when managing human performance and team resources during air traffic control operations in accordance with regulatory requirements and workplace procedures

Adhere to procedures through a series of steps followed in a regular definite order or a traditional or established way of doing things when this is required

Judge and form an opinion or evaluate situations by discerning and comparing information

React to some form of treatment or stressful situation by a considered and measured response in a timely fashion

Take action to mitigate the effects of external threats to personal performance such as weather, terrain, traffic volume, emergencies and abnormal situations through sound control practices, procedures and techniques and personal limitations

Monitor and anticipate operational problems and hazards and take appropriate action

Monitor work activities in terms of planned schedule

Use an appropriate level of assertiveness during air traffic control operations

Work systematically with required attention to detail without injury to self or others, or damage to goods or equipment

Adapt to differences in equipment and operating environment in accordance with standard operating procedures

Be receptive to training for the skills, knowledge, or experiences acquired or gained over a career

Implement OH&S procedures and relevant regulations

Apply human reasoning to airspace and flight path scenarios

Allocate attention according to demand and constantly switch between: managing the Human-machine Interface or equipment use; managing communications; and managing traffic

The range statement relates to the unit of competency as a whole. It allows for different work environments and situations that may affect performance.

Operations may be conducted:

by day and night in variable weather conditions that will be associated with particular psychological and/or physiological limitations to performance

Performance may be demonstrated in:

simulated air traffic control situations

an operational air traffic control environment through a range of real or simulated problem-based scenarios at air traffic service operational units and/or aerodrome control towers

Acute stress is:

stress suffered in the short term

Chronic stress is:

stress suffered over a long period of time. Chronic stress must be treated clinically or it might lead to medical conditions that render a person incapable of performing ATS duties

Air traffic control operations may be conducted:

in both normal and emergency/abnormal situations leading to some stress related behaviours

Air traffic control workplace may be a workstation in:

Area Control

Approach Control

Aerodrome Control

Deterioration of physiological condition may result from such causes as:

physical illness




poor posture

lack of rest

substance abuse (e.g. drugs and alcohol)

other potential physiological hazards of prolonged sedentary activity

Deterioration of psychological condition may result from such causes as:

mental illness



interpersonal conflict



uncontrolled stress

psychological effects of substance abuse (e.g. drugs and alcohol)

secondary effects of illness, disease or injury

Causes of stress may include:

emergency situations

poor planning and prioritisation of tasks

interpersonal conflict

fear and anxiety

insufficient knowledge to adequately manage tasks and contingencies

inability to carry out simultaneous multiple tasks

time pressures

weather conditions

unfamiliar situations


Errors are made:

either unintentionally or intentionally and need to be managed

Intentional errors are termed:

violations, and are underpinned by cultural and attitudinal factors. The remedial strategies to address intentional error are different to those addressing unintentional error. Intentional error or violation can be treated by addressing motivation, shifting culture and beliefs and/or reviewing the construction of written procedures to improve understanding and application such that workaround tactics are not necessary

Unintentional error is treated by:

training to improve competence through increased knowledge and practice, recency, improved communication and decision-making ability

Threat and error management categorises error into:

intentional non-compliance (violations)

procedural error (operational deviation)

communication error (miscommunications or lack thereof)

proficiency-based error (lack of recency or currency)

operational decision error (flawed decision-making processes)

Intentional non-compliances involve:

a wilful deviation from regulation and/or operator procedures and might include using non-standard phrases (when standard phrases are available) or conducting checklists from memory

Procedural errors are:

unintentional operating deviations from regulations and/or operator procedures in which the intention is correct but the execution is flawed

Communication errors include:

miscommunications, incorrect interpretations, or failure to communicate pertinent information. Typically in ATS this might involve failure to read back and hear back correct instructions

Proficiency errors involve:

a deficiency of knowledge or skills in the application of ATS duties. This might involve insufficient knowledge of ATS systems and equipment to produce a safe and efficient air traffic service

Operational decision errors result from:

a non-standard decision making process and might include ignoring a more conservative option for a risky decision, taking a decision and not communicating this, or not effectively using the available time to make a decision. Decisions made in teams might be affected by group think

Teamwork in an air traffic control environment includes:

coordinating operational information with the wider air traffic services community. The concept of a team should be extended beyond the immediate working team to include adjacent sectors and pilots within the jurisdiction airspace. This wider concept of teamwork will improve synergies and increase effectiveness and efficiencies. The immediate working team should exhibit shared situation awareness. For example, the Terminal Control Area (TMA) team will know the runway mode/Automatic Terminal Information Service regardless of the endorsed position worked

Aeronautical decision making (ADM) enhances:

the basic concept of the conventional decision-making process by providing a structured and systematic approach to analysing changes. This includes an awareness of the importance of attitudes in the decision-making process; the need to assess alternatives; the ability to seek and consider all relevant information; the motivation to consider alternatives and to action the least commercially desirable but safest strategy. Furthermore, the time constraints that often characterise the nature of safety critical decisions also form an integral part of the ADM process

Operators have a duty of care to:

take reasonable care to give all instructions and advice as is necessary to promote the safety of aircraft within the ATC area of responsibility. In practical terms this includes the obligation to comply with the operational responsibilities contained in operator s manuals and any other relevant instructions. The duty of care also includes an obligation to: (a) provide information that is accurate and not misleading, (b) warn of known hazards and (c) warn of potential hazards

Situational leadership is:

is the skill needed to influence other members of the team and external people by using local knowledge and conditions. Situational leadership might exist in a position offered by the organisation. Furthermore, this type of leadership might exist only within certain situations that require a particular skill or knowledge as in a particular type of emergency

Followership is important in the evaluation of team performance, the efficient use of team resources and improving team outputs, and is exhibited by:

being non-reactive

offering information

making particular suggestions

offering constructive criticism

solving confrontation and conflict

Team behaviours will involve and should manifest as:

interaction between members with high levels of communication

cohesion and team spirit resulting in high morale

high productivity

high levels of energy

common and purpose-centred team activity

shared responsibility and rewards within the team

regular monitoring of team s performance by all members

Dependent on the type of organisation concerned and the local terminology used, workplace procedures may include:

company procedures

enterprise procedures

organisational procedures

established procedures

regulatory standards and recommended practices

Information/documents may include:

training curricula and syllabi

Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) regulations and Manuals of Standards (MOS)

Local Instructions (LI) and Temporary Local Instructions (TLI)

equipment manufacturers specifications and instructions

Manual of Air Traffic Services (MATS)

Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP)

workplace procedures, instructions

Training Standards Manual (TSM)

ICAO Document 4444, ATM/501, Procedures for Air Navigation Services, Air Traffic Management

occupational specification for air traffic controllers

industrial certified agreements and awards

training and assessment records

documented learning and assessment strategies

Applicable regulations and legislation may include:

International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Standards and Recommended Practices (SARP)

Civil Aviation Safety Regulations (CASR) and Manuals of Standards (MOS)

relevant Defence Orders and Instructions

Airservices Act (Cth) 1995

OH&S Legislation (state and federal)

Civil Aviation Act (Cth) 1988 and the Civil Aviation Amendment Act 1995

Copy and paste from the following performance criteria to create an observation checklist for each task. When you have finished writing your assessment tool every one of these must have been addressed, preferably several times in a variety of contexts. To ensure this occurs download the assessment matrix for the unit; enter each assessment task as a column header and place check marks against each performance criteria that task addresses.

Observation Checklist

Tasks to be observed according to workplace/college/TAFE policy and procedures, relevant legislation and Codes of Practice Yes No Comments/feedback
Factors affecting personal human performance are monitored and managed 
Appropriate assertiveness is used 
Personal workload is regulated by prioritising work tasks 
Human-machine Interface (HMI) is optimised to enhance human performance 
Aeronautical decision-making techniques are practised to improve overall performance 
Appropriate work ethic is practised 
Where an identified loss of personal performance is attributable to health or other uncontrollable causes, and may prejudice the safety of personnel and/or aircraft, the situation is reported and appropriate emergency action is taken 
Error prevention techniques are practised 
Errors are recognised and rectified 
Undesired states resulting from errors are recovered 
Personal responsibility for the commission of any errors is acknowledged and accepted 
Roles and responsibilities of others are considered 
Duty of care is practised 
Factors affecting the human performance of others are monitored 
Situational leadership and followership skills are practised to increase team output 
Team behaviours are practised to improve group performance 


Assessment Cover Sheet

AVIF5003B - Manage human performance and team resources during air traffic control operations
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Assessment Record Sheet

AVIF5003B - Manage human performance and team resources during air traffic control operations

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