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Elements and Performance Criteria

  1. Manage engine failure after take-off
  2. Perform forced landing following engine failure
  3. Recognise and recover from stall
  4. Recognise and recover from an incipient spin
  5. Conduct precautionary search and landing
  6. Manage on-board abnormal and emergency situations

Required Skills

This describes the essential knowledge and skills and their level required for this unit

Required knowledge

Relevant sections of Civil Aviation Regulations and Orders pertaining to abnormal flight situations

In Defence context relevant Defence Orders and Instructions

Relevant OHampS and environmental procedures and regulations

Principles of aerodynamics

Functions and effects of all aircraft controls

Controllability checks and external inspection procedures

Engine failure emergency procedures

Explain the effects of a partial engine failure on aircraft performance with respect to straight and level flight and turning while maintaining level flight

Describe the hazards associated with turning an aircraft at slow speed using large angles of bank while maintaining level flight following a partial engine failure after takeoff

Explain what factors should be considered when deciding whether to land immediately or proceed to a more suitable landing area after a partial engine failure

Practical action plans for use in the event of an engine failure after takeoff

A plan of action to be used in the event of an engine failure in flight other than after takeoff

Factors affecting a stall

Symptoms of the approach to the stall and the stall

Causes of stalling

Recovery techniques

The potential dangers of unbalanced flight at slow speed

Actions required to recover from an incipient spin wing drop at point of stall

Action required to recover from a stall during a turn

Spin entry and recovery techniques

The difference between a spin and spiral dive

Symmetrical and rolling g limitations

Procedures to be followed to recover from a stall

Procedures to be followed to recover from an incipient spin

Height loss whilst gliding including minimum height to achieve safe turns towards selected landing area

Action planning processes

All applicable checklist items

Emergency radio procedures

Actions to be conducted following a forced landing

Poor visibility configuration

Hazards associated with flying operations at low level

Ditching procedures when specified in the Flight ManualPilots Operating Handbook POH or company operations manual

Required skills

Operate the aircraft within its limitations achieving optimum performance

Compensate for the secondary effects of controls

Identify symptoms of incipient and developed stalls

Recognise situations which may require a precautionary landing

Perform various functions simultaneously as required

Ensure compliance with relevant emergency procedures and regulatory requirements

Select and use relevant equipment in abnormal aircraft flight situations

Use instruments to monitor aircraft performance

Communicate effectively with others when managing abnormal aircraft flight situations including radio use

Read and interpret instructions regulations procedures and other information relevant to managing abnormal aircraft flight situations

Interpret and follow operational instructions and prioritise workload

Complete documentation related to abnormal aircraft flight situations

Operate electronic communication equipment to required protocol

Work collaboratively with others when managing abnormal aircraft flight situations

Adapt appropriately to cultural differences in the workplace including modes of behaviour and interactions with others

Promptly report andor rectify any identified problems that may occur when managing abnormal aircraft flight situations in accordance with regulatory requirements and workplace procedures

Implement contingency plans for unexpected events that may arise when managing abnormal aircraft flight situations

Apply precautions and required action to minimise control or eliminate hazards that may exist during abnormal aircraft flight situations

Monitor and anticipate operational problems and hazards and take appropriate action

Monitor work activities in terms of planned schedule

Modify activities dependent on differing workplace contingencies situations and environments

Work systematically with required attention to detail without injury to self or others or damage to goods or equipment

Adapt to differences in equipment and operating environment in accordance with standard operating procedures

Select and use required personal protective equipment conforming to industry and OHampS standards

Implement OHampS procedures and relevant regulations

Identify and correctly use equipment required to manage abnormal aircraft flight situations

Evidence Required

The Evidence Guide provides advice on assessment and must be read in conjunction with the performance criteria required knowledge and skills the range statement and the assessment guidelines for this Training Package

Critical aspects for assessment and evidence required to demonstrate competency in this unit

The evidence required to demonstrate competency in this unit must be relevant to and satisfy all of the requirements of the elements and performance criteria of this unit and include demonstration of applying

the underpinning knowledge and skills

relevant legislation and workplace procedures

other relevant aspects of the range statement

Context of and specific resources for assessment

Performance is demonstrated consistently over a period of time and in a suitable range of contexts

Resources for assessment include

a range of relevant exercises case studies andor other simulated practical and knowledge assessment andor

access to an appropriate range of relevant operational situations in the workplace

In both real and simulated environments access is required to

relevant and appropriate materials and equipment and

applicable documentation including workplace procedures regulations codes of practice and operation manuals

Method of assessment

Assessment of this unit must be undertaken by a registered training organisation

As a minimum assessment of knowledge must be conducted through appropriate writtenoral tests

Practical assessment must occur

through activities in an appropriately simulated environment at the registered training organisation andor

in an appropriate range of situations in the workplace

Range Statement

The range statement relates to the unit of competency as a whole. It allows for different work environments and situations that may affect performance.

Tasks may be undertaken in:

variable weather conditions in accordance with Day Visual Flight Rules

Performance may be demonstrated in:

single engine aircraft

multi engine aircraft

synthetic training device approved by appropriate authority

variable air traffic conditions

variable flight situations

abnormal situations

Performance may be demonstrated on an aircraft with:

fully functioning dual controls

an electronic intercom system

(if propeller-driven) a constant speed propeller

Aircraft may include:

Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA)/Unmanned aircraft

Crew may include:

Remote Pilot


Instruments may be:

fitted flight instruments

head up displays

Limitations may be imposed by:

local noise abatement requirements and curfews

Classes of airspace must be:

in Class G airspace as designated by the regulator, and may be in:

restricted and danger areas

military control zones

Abnormal conditions may include:

engine failure at take-off

engine failure during flight


incipient spin

forced landing

onboard abnormal operational situations involving equipment, instruments, control, airframe, fire or other on-board emergency

Simulated emergency evacuation environments may include:


on land

in water

Runways may include:




Dependent on the type of organisation concerned and the local terminology used, workplace procedures may include:

company procedures

enterprise procedures

organisational procedures

established procedures

standard operating procedures

Information/documents may include:

relevant sections of Civil Aviation Safety Regulations and Civil Aviation Orders pertaining to the various abnormal flight situations including Day Visual Flight Rules (Day VFR)

in ADF context, relevant Defence Orders and Instructions

Flight Manual/Pilot's Operating Handbook (POH)

Manual of Standards

Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP)

En Route Supplement Australia (ERSA)


operations manuals

approved checklists

emergency procedures

workplace procedures and instructions and job specification

induction and training materials

conditions of service, legislation and industrial agreements including workplace agreements and awards

Applicable regulations and legislation may include:

relevant Civil Aviation Safety Regulations and Civil Aviation Orders

in ADF context, relevant Defence Orders and Instructions

relevant state/territory OH&S legislation

relevant state/territory environmental protection legislation

relevant Australian Standards

Performance includes tolerances specified in either of:

relevant licence and aircraft rating requirements of the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA) such as:

Manual of Standards

relevant Defence documentation such as:

Defence Orders and Instructions